Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Border Cave

Archaeological site found in 1940 in North KwaZulu and Swaziland, Africa, and dated to 110-90 kya (ESR, 141-42 kya; controversial). Contains Levallois artifacts of Middle Stone Age (Howiesons Poort); hominid remains include a partial 1507 cm3 male cranium, 2 adult mandibles, and a partial infant skeleton (grave was shallow and may have been intrusive from the 80 kya level). Some material was removed by a farmer for use as fertilizer before scientific excavation began. The early date for these fossils, now generally agreed to be AMHs, has led to the proposal that Homo sapiens evolved only once, in Africa, during the Pleistocene, and then spread to Europe and elsewhere at later times.

See the monophyletic hypothesis and the Afro-European sapiens hypothesis.

Cf. the polyphyletic hypothesis.

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