Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Broca, Pierre Paul

French surgeon, anatomist, racial craniometrician, founder of neuroanatomy; proved localization of brain functions by identifying the eponymous speech center (1862), the limbic lobe (1878), and homologous olfactory centers in both humans and nonhuman primates (1879). His anthropological work included the creation of an orbital index; founder of the Société d’Anthropologie (1859) and the Ecole d’Anthropologie (1876). A moderate Darwinian, he was a polygenist who elaborated on the American S. G. Morton’s version of primordial racial typology, while warning, however, against the reification of races, as did his student Topinard.

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