Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Mandrillus Ritgen, 1824

Catarrhine genus to which the forest-dwelling baboons belong; two species. Found in rain forests of western equatorial Africa. Terrestrial; arboreal; quadrupedal; relatively short tail; ischial callosities present. Sexually dimorphic in body size, canine size, and, in the mandrill, coloration. Body mass for males ranges from 20 to 26 kg, females 7 to 15 kg. Dental formula: 2.1.2.3, with large canines and lower sectorial premolars that hone the upper canines; frugivorous; possess cheek pouches. Elongated muzzle. Social organization variable, one-male units, mixed-sex groups of 30-60 animals, and large troops of 250 individuals have been reported; high ratio of females to males in social units; solitary males common. Some workers include these species in Papio.

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