Proposal that things contain transcendent Forms
, otherwise known as Platonic essences, universals
are nonmaterial, abstract (nonmental), eternal, changeless, real, and independent of the objects themselves. Proposed by Plato (c. 427- c.
347 BCE), who
himself criticized this early thinking
in his later works (Parmenides); nevertheless, his argument either influenced, or reflected, human
tendencies toward typological thinking