Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Procynocephalus Schlosser, 1924

Genus of cercopithecines known from the Pliocene of China and India; two species. The European genus Paradolichopithecus is very similar and may eventually be included within Procynocephalus. P. subhimalayensis was the first fossil monkey whose description was published, as well as the first fossil recognized as a primate. This monkey has skull morphology resembling that of the macaques, but dentition and postcrania reminiscent of baboons. Estimated body mass around 22kg. Dental formula: 2.1.2.3/2.1.2.3; dental morphology suggestive of a diet of tubers, fruit, and grasses that would be part of a terrestrial habit; limb bones also reflect a terrestrial adaptation.

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