Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Schwalbe, Gustav

German physician, anatomist; Schwalbe turned from an early interest in histology to an increased contemplation of phylogenetic questions later in his career. Schwalbe was an enthusiastic Darwinist, and best known for his unilinear hypothesis that the Dubois’ Pithecanthropus erectus and Neandertals were both direct antecedents of modern humans; in his late career, however, he concluded that these taxa may have represented side branches and in fact did not evolve directly into modern humans. He was one of the first to propose that Homo primigenius (his term for Neandertals) represent a distinct species. Schwalbe’s student, Franz Weidenreich, carried these ideas forward into the well-known trellis model. Schwalbe was founder of Die Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie (1899).

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