Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Shanidar Cave

Archaeological site excavated 1953-60, located above the Greater Zab River (a tributary of the Tigris) in the Zagros Mountains, Iraq, dated to 51-27 kya (14C), and that contains associated Mousterian artifacts. Hominid remains (see p. 484) include four individuals crushed by rockfalls, and five intentional burials, of which two are infants, all attributed to Homo neanderthalensis (a few researchers have questioned this assignment). Some skulls exhibit cranial deformation, possibly due to head binding. One skeleton has a possible intentional amputation. Shapiro, Harry Lionel: US physical anthropologist; educated at Harvard (PhD, 1926) under Kluckholn and E. A. Hooton. Worked at the Bishop Museum (Hawaii) and American Museum of Natural History. Chair at Columbia, president of the AAA, Eugenics Society, Ethnological Society. Specialist in human biology and racial variation of Pacific island populations, especially gene flow as regards the descendants of the H.M.S. Bounty mutineers on Pitcairn and Norfolk Islands. Author of The Heritage of the Bounty (1936) and Migration and Environment (1939); the latter of these volumes offered support for the Boasian thesis that even hereditary characters such as the cephalic index, were unstable. He was also one of five prominent physical anthropologists asked to participate in the identification of American casualties after World War II. Late in his career, Shapiro was involved in attempts to recover the Zhoukoudian material lost during the Sino-Japanese War; these latter events were recounted in his book Peking Man (1974).

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