Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Swartkrans

Archaeological site found in 1948 by Broom near Johannesburg, South Africa. Consists of five major rock units (known as Members 1-5) dating from about 1.8 (Member 1) to 1.0 mya (Member 3), and contains artifacts (developed Oldowan tools) and hominid remains that include 98 individuals from Member 1, 17 from Member 2, and 9 from Member 3, all assigned to Paranthropus (Australopithecus) robustus (e.g. SK 48 and SK 1585). The hominids are expected to date to the younger portion of the deposition interval, however. In 1949, other fragments, dated to about 1.5 mya, were found. These fragments included bone artifacts and several hominid remains from Members 1 and 3, and two mandibles and a partial skull attributed to Telanthropus capensis (Homo erectus) from Member 2.

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