Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Enamel matrix protein formed in the juvenile stage of a mammal as part of amelogenesis. Homologous amelogenin is found on both the X (AMELX) and Y (AMELY) chromosomes, and is useful for molecular sex determination. Functionally orthologous amelogenin exon 2 is found in a wide variety of biomineralizing organisms, dating the genesis of this sequence to well over 500 mya. Amelogenin is also suspected to contribute to enamel thickness and to be one of the polygenes that contributes to sexual dimorphism.

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