Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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1. reduction in total blood hemoglobin.

2. insufficient red blood cell production, which is often due to severe iron deficiency, but may also be due to los of, or defective, erythrocytes; any imbalance between the los of erythrocytes and the ability of the body to replace them.

3. a state of malnutrition in strict vegetarians caused by a reversible deficiency (avitaminosis) of vitamin B12. The primary cause is a deficiency of cyanocobalamin, required for DNA synthesis (esp. carbon bonding).

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