Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Referring generally to any species in the genera Australopithecus or Paranthropus; man-apes of the Plio-Pleistocene who were bipedal and dentally similar to humans, but whose brain size was not much larger than modern apes; that is, they lacked the encephalization characteristics of the genus Homo. In the formal sense, a member of the subfamily Australopithecinae of the family Hominidae.

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