Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Chromosome Mutation

Any change in chromosome structure and/or chromosome number. A standard karyotype for each species is used for comparison. Among the more common chromosome mutations are deletion, fusion, dissociation (fission), inversion, and translocation. In primates, chromosome evolution via such mutations is one of the major modes of establishing reproductive barriers between species or demes that may otherwise be genetically similar, such as the Bornean and Sumatran orangutan populations. Aka chromosome aberration and chromosome anomaly.

See major chromosome anomaly, aneuploidy, triploidy and polyploidy.

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