Set of hypothetical personality modes
that correspond to certain morphological characteristics such as body build
. Lombroso constructed a typology
that putatively accounted for habitual criminals. In 1921, the German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer postulated asthenic, pyknic, athletic, and dysplastic types
. In 1940, W. H. Sheldon identified ectomorphy
, and endomorphy
. Most scholars remain skeptical of the utility of such typologies.