Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Diabetes Mellitus, Type II

Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus is an abnormal, partly acquired condition characterized by the lack of an ability to utilize sugar, and by an excess secretion of sugar in the urine. Insulin is present at near normal or even above normal concentrations (hyperinsulinemia), but the tissues do not respond optimally (owing to insulin resistance). Adult onset, 2nd-6th decades. Affected individuals are usually noticeably overweight and often have the so-called metabolic syndrome. Infrequently, nonobese adolescents acquire NIDDM in the form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Several susceptibility genes have been implicated but penetrance is variable and the heritable effect is polygenic. Aka insulin-independent diabetes, adult onset diabetes, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes (MOD), ketosisresistant diabetes, stable diabetes.

See the thrifty genotype hypothesis and New World syndrome.

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