Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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1. purposeful injection of a dead or attenuated pathogen into a subject in order to confer active immunity to a disease-causing organism; aka vaccination.

2. purposeful introduction of microbes into an individual for beneficial purposes, such as when an herbivorous female mammal inoculates her offspring with fecal matter that contains symbionts that help break down food.

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From "Dictionary of Nursing and Individual Health Care"