Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Insulin

1. natural protein hormone secreted in the kidney by beta cells in the pancreatic islets into the blood, where it regulates carbohydrate metabolism by controlling blood glucose concentrations. The gene for human insulin has been mapped to chromosome 11p.

2. a nonhuman therapeutic product since 1922, homologous porcine or bovine insulin was used as a substitute product in cases of diabetes mellitus.

3. since 1983, a recombinant product of genetic engineering, historically the first such production by the recombination of a human gene into the E. coli plasmid.

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