Dictionary of Human Evolution and Biology

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Myopia 2 (MYP2)

Hereditary nearsightedness of severe degree; aka extreme myopia (EM). Myopia is classified as low, high, and extreme. Myopia is multifactorial and is measured as a metric character, with a heritability of 0.58. In urban populations there is an apparent high correlation between severity of myopia and high performance on certain aptitude tests. MYP is considered a case pf pleiotrophy, with a suspected autosomal recessive major gene that has been located. In general, the categories of low and high myopia are positively correlated with the prevalence of extreme myopia (EM). Prevalence rates of EM are: (a) low (0.5%) in Americans, Australian aboriginals, Eskimos, European Australians, Fijians, Finns, French Canadians, Greenland Eskimos, Labradorans, most Native Americans, natives of New Guinea, Yupik Eskimo males; (b) medium (0.5-2%) in Chinese, subcontinental Indians, Israelis; and (c) high (2%) in Alaska Native Americans, Icelanders, Danes, Malays, Nigerians, Sioux Native Americans, and Yupik Eskimo females.

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